Asia/Afghanistan ranges

The highest mountain ranges of Afghanistan are Hindu Kush and Hindu Raj. Both of the ranges reach partially into neighbouring countries so that Tirich Mir, the highest peak of Hindu Kush is located in Pakistan. The highest mountain f Afghanistan thus is Noshaq (7492m). Political situation during the last decades have means, that next to no recent climbing has been done.

  • Hindu Kush Hindu Kush is located southwest of Pamir, more or less on the border of Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Hindu Kush is one of the great watersheds of Central Asia, forming part of the vast Alpine zone that stretches across the continent from east to west. In the eastern part of the range, mountains are generally round and wide, and rise to around 5500m, low by central Asian standards. Western part has a cluster of high snowy peaks, twenty of which are 7000 meter summits. The highest mountain of the area is Tirich Mir (7690m). Compared to many other areas with high peaks, the weather is predictable and stable.
  • Hindu Raj The Hindu Raj is the extensive chain of sub-7000-meter summits that roughly parallels the Hindu Kush and lies between it and the Western Karakoram. On its north side lies nowadays very rarely visited eastern Hindu Kush, while to the south upper reaches of the Yarkun and the Indus rivers flow into the areas known as Swat and Kohistan. The range is much less well-known than its neighbors, partly because of the absence of any really high peaks.

Hindu Kush

Hindu Kush is located southwest of Pamir, more or less on the border of Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Hindu Kush is one of the great watersheds of Central Asia, forming part of the vast Alpine zone that stretches across the continent from east to west. In the eastern part of the range, mountains are generally round and wide, and rise to around 5500m, low by central Asian standards. Western part has a cluster of high snowy peaks, twenty of which are 7000 meter summits. The highest mountain of the area is Tirich Mir (7690m). Compared to many other areas with high peaks, the weather is predictable and stable.

Main city on the Pakistani side is Chitral located to the south of the range and not far from Tirich Mir. On Afghanistan side, Kabul is not far from the western side, on its southern side.

The Hindu Kush can be divided orographically into four parts (Grötzbach, 1990, pp. 241-42)

  • Western Hindu Kush Western Hindu Kush lies between Darra-ye Šekāri and the Shibar Pass in the west and the Khawak (Ḵavāk) Pass in the east, that rises to a height of 5126m.
  • Central Hindu Kush The middle or central Hindu Kush, which includes the main ridge and all of the numerous spurs between the Khawak Pass in the east and the Dorah (Durāh) Pass in the west and reaches heights up to 6843m. The Ḵᵛāja Moḥammed Range, to the north of Central Hindu Kush, stretching with its various side ridges from the Khawak Pass north as far as Badaḵšān and is over 5800m high.
  • Eastern Hindu Kush Eastern Hindu Kush lies in Wakhan Corridor area, squeezed in between Pamir in the north and Hindu Raj and Karakoram in the south. It extends from the Dorah Pass to the Baroghil Pass, over whose main ridge the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan runs. The area is also known as High Hindu Kush and it includes several peaks over 7000m. The area is home to Tirich Mir (7706m, the highest peak of Hindu Kush), Noshaq, and Istor-o-Nal.
  • Diemberger, Kurt: Summits and Secrets. Isbn: 9780898863079. Mountaineers Books, 1991.
  • Pinelli, Carlo Alberto & Predan, Gianni: Peaks of Silver and Jade - Mountaineering Guidebook of the Afghan Hindu Kush. Isbn: B00B7GWBO4. Aga Khan Foundation, 2007.

Western Hindu Kush

Western Hindu Kush lies between Darra-ye Šekāri and the Shibar Pass in the west and the Khawak (Ḵavāk) Pass in the east, that rises to a height of 5126m.

Koh-i-Baba

Shah Fuladi (Foladi peak)34.643333333333367.6255060
1968-08-20
Shah Fuladi, ,
First ascent
Party from Jp

Central Hindu Kush

The middle or central Hindu Kush, which includes the main ridge and all of the numerous spurs between the Khawak Pass in the east and the Dorah (Durāh) Pass in the west and reaches heights up to 6843m. The Ḵᵛāja Moḥammed Range, to the north of Central Hindu Kush, stretching with its various side ridges from the Khawak Pass north as far as Badaḵšān and is over 5800m high.

Mir Samir35.586666666666770.16583333333335809
1959-07-27
Mir Samir, ,
First ascent
Party from Ger
Kohe Mondi35.789166666666770.92083333333336234
1962-07-26
Kohe Mondi, ,
First ascent
Party from Ger
1972-01-01
Kohe Mondi, North face,
First ascent
North face: Nottingham University Mountaineering Club
North face
North face. 1972-01-01First ascentNottingham University Mountaineering Club, 1972.
Kohe Bandaka (Kuh-e Bandaka, Bandako)36.17916666770.9833333336843
The highest peak located entirely in Afghanistan.
1960-09-22
Kohe Bandaka, SE ridge,
First ascent
SE ridge: Wolfgang von Hansemann, Dietrich Hasse, Siegbert Heine & Johannes Winkler
1967-01-01
Kohe Bandaka, South face,
First ascent
South face: Doug Scott, Ray Gillies
1977-08-14
Kohe Bandaka, NE face,
First ascent
NE face: Wojciech Kurtyka, Alex MacIntyre & John Porter
NE side
NE face. 3000m. 1977-08-14First ascentWojciech Kurtyka, Alex MacIntyre & John Porter, 1977-08-14.
Extreme route with considerable rock fall danger. The climb was carried out as single push alpine style effort. Probably less known as some later climbs by the same team but definitely up there among the hardest climbs ever done at the time.
SE side
SE ridge. 1960-09-22First ascentWolfgang von Hansemann, Dietrich Hasse, Siegbert Heine & Johannes Winkler, 1960-09-22.
South face. 1967-01-01First ascentDoug Scott, Ray Gillies, 1967.
Kohe Goybaz (Koh-e Goy Baz, Kohe Goy Baz)36.208333333333371.35166666666676272
1965-08-30
Kohe Goybaz, ,
First ascent
Party from Ger
Kohe Khrebek35.9371.086290
1961-08-17
Kohe Khrebek, ,
First ascent
Party from Ger
Shaye Anjuman (Shai-i-Anjurnan, Peak X)35.818055555555670.49583333333336026
1968-07-19
Shaye Anjuman, ,
First ascent
Party from Jp
Yajun35.775833333333370.67666666666676024
1967-08-03
Yajun, ,
First ascent
Party from Jp
Kohe Koran36.150833333333370.5355841
1963-08-03
Kohe Koran, ,
First ascent
Party from Ger

Eastern Hindu Kush

Eastern Hindu Kush lies in Wakhan Corridor area, squeezed in between Pamir in the north and Hindu Raj and Karakoram in the south. It extends from the Dorah Pass to the Baroghil Pass, over whose main ridge the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan runs. The area is also known as High Hindu Kush and it includes several peaks over 7000m. The area is home to Tirich Mir (7706m, the highest peak of Hindu Kush), Noshaq, and Istor-o-Nal.

  • World Mountaineering pp.212-215

High Hindu Kush

Tirich Mir group

Tirich Mir is a huge massif consisting of five main ridges:

  • East ridge. Between Lower Tirich and North Barum glaciers,
  • SE ridge. Between North and South Barum glaciers.
  • South ridge. Divides Dirgol and South Barum glaciers and connects to South Glacier Peak (6700m)
  • SW ridge. Connects to Dirgol Zom (6778m).
  • NW ridge. Most impressive of the ridges with Tirich Mir West I, II, III and IV and a bit further Tirich Mir North. Separetes Upper and Lower Tirich glaciers

Saraghrar

Tirich Mir group
Kohe Keshni Khan (Koh-e Keshni Khan, Kuh-e Keshni Khan)36.57722222271.8997222226755
1963-07-27
Kohe Keshni Khan, ,
First ascent
Party from A
Tirich Mir North7056
North side
North face. 2000m. 1965-01-01First ascentKurt Diemberger, 1965.
North spur. 2000m. 1985-01-01First ascentDutch expedition, 1985.
Tirich Mir West IV7338
1967-08-06
Tirich Mir West IV, North face,
First ascent
North face: Kurt Diemberger & Dietmar Proske
1976-01-01
Tirich Mir West IV, SW face,
First ascent
SW face: Spanish expedition
1977-01-01
Tirich Mir West IV, SW face direct,
First ascent
SW face direct: Italian expedition
North face
North face. 2400m. 1967-08-06First ascentKurt Diemberger & Dietmar Proske, 1967-08-06.
SW face
SW face. V, 45-70°; 2400m. 1976-01-01First ascentSpanish expedition, 1976.
SW face direct. 2400m. 1977-01-01First ascentItalian expedition, 1977.
Tirich Mir West III7400
West side
West face. V; 25090m. 1974-07-20First ascentBeppe Re & Guido Machetto, 1974-07-20.
Tirich Mir West II7500
West side
West Spur. V. 1974-07-20First ascentBeppe Re & Guido Machetto, 1974-07-20.
Tirich Mir West I (Tirich Mir NW)36.26333333371.8166666677487
SE side
SE ridge. 2600m. 1967-07-20First ascentVladimir Sedovy. J. Cervinka, I. Galfy, V. Smida & I. Urbanovic, 1967-07-20.
via north-west col.
Tirich Mir (Terich Mir, Terichmir)36.25571.8408333337708
1950-07-21
Tirich Mir, SW ridge,
First ascent
SW ridge: Arne Naess, P. Kvernberg, H. Berg & Tony Streather
1967-01-01
Tirich Mir, NW Ridge,
First ascent
NW Ridge: Czech Team
1971-01-01
Tirich Mir, South ridge,
First ascent
South ridge: Japanese expedition
1975-01-01
Tirich Mir, West ridge,
First ascent
West ridge: Italian expedition
  • Bateson, Solvi; Bateson, Richard & Naess, Arne: Tirich Mir - The Norwegian Himalaya Expedition. Isbn: B000ZOWRZ2. Hodder & Stoughton, 1952.
South side
SW ridge (South face, South ridge). 400m. 1950-07-21First ascentArne Naess, P. Kvernberg, H. Berg & Tony Streather, 1950-07-21.
South ridge. 1971-01-01First ascentJapanese expedition, 1971.
Long ridge route via South Glacier Peak (6700m).
NW side
NW Ridge. 2800m. 1967-01-01First ascentCzech Team, 1967.
West ridge. 1975-01-01First ascentItalian expedition, 1975.
Tirich Mir East7692
South side
South face. 400m. 1964-01-01First ascentR. Hoibakk & A. Opdal, 1964.
SE ridge. 1991-01-01First ascentJon Gangdal & Sven Gangdal, 1991.
Until 7620-meter foresummit.
Gul Lasht Zom6665
1969-01-01
Gul Lasht Zom, ,
First ascent
Kurt Diemberger
Dirgol Zom6778
1967-07-12
Dirgol Zom, ,
First ascent
Party from Cz
Noshaq group
Gumbaz-e-Safed36.4671.8066666676800
1963-08-30
Gumbaz-e-Safed, ,
First ascent
Party from A
Noshaq36.432571.8291666677492
  • Noshaq West (7250m)
  • Noshaq Central (7400m)
  • Noshaq East (7480m)
  • Noshaq (7492m36.432571.829166667)
Fourth highest peak of Hindu Kush and the highest in Afghanistan. Normal route is one of the easiest on any 7000m peaks.
1960-08-17
Noshaq, South ridge from Afghan side,
First ascent
South ridge from Afghan side: Goro Iwatsubo & Toshiaki Sakai
1963-01-01
Noshaq, West ridge to Noshaq East,
First ascent
West ridge to Noshaq East: Gerard Gruber’s five-man expedition and Gerhard Werner’s four-man team
1971-07-01
Noshaq, South ridge,
First ascent
South ridge: Dieter Eger, Harald Navé & Wolfgang Stefan
South side
South ridge. 1971-07-01First ascentDieter Eger, Harald Navé & Wolfgang Stefan, 1971-07.
West side
South ridge from Afghan side. 1960-08-17First ascentGoro Iwatsubo & Toshiaki Sakai, 1960-08-17.
West ridge to Noshaq East. Glacier/snow, 3000m. 1963-01-01First ascentGerard Gruber’s five-man expedition and Gerhard Werner’s four-man team, 1963.
Kohe Mandaras36.502571.88833333333336628
1962-09-04
Kohe Mandaras, ,
First ascent
Party from Pl
Istor-o-Nal group
Shingeik Zom36.432671.86907291
  • Shingeik Zom (7291m36.432671.8690)
  • Shingeik Zom East
1966-07-13
Shingeik Zom, ,
First ascent
Party from Ger
Darban Zom36.446971.84907110
1965-09-12
Darban Zom, ,
First ascent
Kurt Diemberger, Marcus Schmuck
Nobaism Zom (Nohbarsum Zom)36.40166666771.87583333333336999
1967-07-10
Nobaism Zom, ,
First ascent
Kurt Diemberger, Kurt Lapuch
Istor-o-Nal North36.390771.90187373
  • Istor-o-Nal North (7373m36.390771.9018)
  • Istor-o-Nal NE (7276m36.391671.9197)
1967-06-29
Istor-o-Nal North, ,
First ascent
Party from A
Istor-o-Nal36.37583333371.8983333337388
1955-06-08
Istor-o-Nal, West ridge,
First ascent
West ridge: Thomas A. Mutch, Joseph E. Murphy, Jr. & Ken Bankwala
1969-08-12
Istor-o-Nal, ,
First ascent
Josep Manuel Anglada, Jordi Pons, Joan Cerdá & Emili Civis
West side
West ridge. 1955-06-08First ascentThomas A. Mutch, Joseph E. Murphy, Jr. & Ken Bankwala, 1955-06-08.
Kohe Langar Group
Udren Zom36.53583333371.9891666677108
1964-08-19
Udren Zom, ,
First ascent
Gerald Gruber, Rudolph Pischinger
Kohe Shakhawr36.55416666771.9908333337084
1964-08-17
Kohe Shakhawr, ,
First ascent
Party from A
Kohe Langar (Langar Zom)36.57916666772.0816666677070
1964-07-08
Kohe Langar, ,
First ascent
Party from Ger
Kohe Langar East W (Hushko Zom)36.58572.1083333337061
1967-07-25
Kohe Langar East W, ,
First ascent
Party from Jp
Kohe Langar North36.587572.0791666676900
1964-07-05
Kohe Langar North, ,
First ascent
Party from Ger
Kohe Langar Southeast (Wala 193)36.57166666772.1108333336820
1974-08-05
Kohe Langar Southeast, ,
First ascent
Party from It
Kohe Nadir Shah36.54583333371.9366666676814
1962-08-27
Kohe Nadir Shah, ,
First ascent
Party from Pl
Nohbaiznoh Zom36.463333333333372.04777777777786445
1967-01-01
Nohbaiznoh Zom, ,
First ascent
Japanese party from from Hitotsubashi university led by K. Yamamoto
Saraghrar
Saraghrar36.547572.1166666677349
1959-08-24
Saraghrar, ,
First ascent
Franco Alletto, Giancarlo Castelli, Paolo Consiglio, Carlo Alberto Pinelli
Saraghrar South7307
1967-08-24
Saraghrar South, ,
First ascent
Japanese party from from Hitotsubashi university led by K. Yamamoto
Languta-e-Barfi36.59166666772.0316666676827
1963-09-27
Languta-e-Barfi, ,
First ascent
Party from Pl
Akher Tsagh group
Akher Tsagh (Akher Chioh, Akher Chaq)36.672572.2316666677017
1966-08-10
Akher Tsagh, ,
First ascent
Hanns Schell; Rainer Göschl
Kohe Urgunt (Urgent)36.65916666772.1616666677016
1963-09-04
Kohe Urgunt, ,
First ascent
Party from CH
Kohe Tez36.66333333372.2091666676995
1962-08-28
Kohe Tez, ,
First ascent
Jerzy Krajski; Kazimierz Olech; Adam Pąchalski; Marian Bała
Kohe Shan6920
1971-08-18
Kohe Shan, ,
First ascent
Party from It
Shayoz Zom6855
1963-09-20
Shayoz Zom, ,
First ascent
Party from A

Far Eastern Hindu Kush

Lunkho group

Lunkho e Dosare (Lunkhoye Dosare)36.77583333372.3956902
1968-08-04
Lunkho e Dosare, ,
First ascent
F. Grimmlinger, G. Haberl, E. Kolbmüller, M. Draslar & M. Stupnik
Lunkho e Hawar (Lunkhoye Hamwar)36.77666666772.43756895
1967-08-05
Lunkho e Hawar, ,
First ascent
Party from Jp
Kohe Hevad36.82916666772.4291666676849
1965-08-19
Kohe Hevad, ,
First ascent
Party from CSSR
Koh-e-Baba Tangi (Jade Peak)34.64527867.6241676516
The highest mountain in the eastern sector of the Afghan Hindu Kush.
West side
West ridge. 1500m. 1963-08-01First ascentGiancarlo Biasin, Giancarlo Castelli & Carlo Alberto Pinelli, 1963-08.
NW ridge. 80°. 2011-01-01First ascentChristine Byrch & Pat Deavoll, 2011.
Rahozon Zom36.842572.65583333333336535
1969-08-06
Rahozon Zom, ,
First ascent
Party from A

Hindu Raj

The Hindu Raj is the extensive chain of sub-7000-meter summits that roughly parallels the Hindu Kush and lies between it and the Western Karakoram. On its north side lies nowadays very rarely visited eastern Hindu Kush, while to the south upper reaches of the Yarkun and the Indus rivers flow into the areas known as Swat and Kohistan. The range is much less well-known than its neighbors, partly because of the absence of any really high peaks.

For a long time the more easily visible Buni Zom (6551m) at the western end of the range was considered the highest summit. During the 1960s that the shapely Koyo Zom, hidden in the center of the range, was found to be the highest at 6889m. Other notable peaks include Thui Zom 1 (6661m) and 2 (6623 m), Dhuli Chhish (6518m), Garmush (6243m) and Karka 6222m).

  • SW Hindu Raj Groups located to the west of Chitral and separated from the goups further NE by a road leading from Chitral via Booni and Mastuj to Gilgit where is joins Karakoram Highway. The highest peaks of the group are found in Buni Zom group, located close to Chitral.
  • Central Hindu Raj Central part of Hindu Raj extends from Hindu Kust on its north side to road from Chitral to Gilgit in the south. The eastern border is a deep valley with a road in it. The area has several groups with many 6000m peaks. The highest peaks of entire Hindu Raj system, Koyo Zom (6872m) and Karol Zom (Thui Zom I, 6660m) are located at the northernmost part of Central Hindu Raj.
  • Eastern Hindu Raj Eastern Hindu Raj is tightly squeezed in between Hindu Kush in the north and Batura Muztagh of Karakoram in the east. The main peaks of the area are Chiantar Sar (6416m) and Garmush Zom (5243m).

SW Hindu Raj

Groups located to the west of Chitral and separated from the goups further NE by a road leading from Chitral via Booni and Mastuj to Gilgit where is joins Karakoram Highway. The highest peaks of the group are found in Buni Zom group, located close to Chitral.

Buni Zom group

The Buni Zom mountains lie northeast of Chitral, Pakistan, east of the road connecting the town with Mastuj at the western end of the Hindu Raj. Very compact group which is very seldom visited, particularly in recent years partly due to approximity to Afghan border.

Buni Zom group

Buni Zom36.15416772.32756551
1957-01-01
Buni Zom, ,
First ascent
W.K.A. Berry & C.H. Tyndale-Biscoe via SW ridge
Ghochhar Sar35.910277777777872.26638888888896249
1967-01-01
Ghochhar Sar, ,
First ascent
Party from It
Thalo Zom35.780833333333372.28277777777786050
1971-08-12
Thalo Zom, ,
First ascent
Party from A
Kharakhali35.820833333333372.41416666666675871
1968-09-05
Kharakhali, ,
First ascent
Party from UK
Falak Sar35.67572.785918
1957-07-14
Falak Sar, ,
First ascent
Party from NZ

Central Hindu Raj

Central part of Hindu Raj extends from Hindu Kust on its north side to road from Chitral to Gilgit in the south. The eastern border is a deep valley with a road in it. The area has several groups with many 6000m peaks. The highest peaks of entire Hindu Raj system, Koyo Zom (6872m) and Karol Zom (Thui Zom I, 6660m) are located at the northernmost part of Central Hindu Raj.

Koyo Zom group

Koyo Zom group

Karol Zom (Thui Zom I)36.72573.17256660
1974-07-27
Karol Zom, ,
First ascent
Party from Jp
Koyo Zom36.73083333373.2416666676872
Koyo Zom is the highest peak in the Hindu Raj mountain range in Pakistan at 6872m. The peak is hidden in the center of the range, and was found to be the highest as late as in 1960. The peak lies on the boundary of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit-Baltistan provinces of Pakistan. It was first climbed by an Austrian expedition in 1968.
1968-08-17
Koyo Zom, East ridge,
First ascent
East ridge: Austrian party led by Albert Stamm
East ridge
East ridge. 1968-08-17First ascentAustrian party led by Albert Stamm, 1968-08-17.
Ghamubar Zom36.5973.34166666666676518
1973-09-18
Ghamubar Zom, ,
First ascent
Party from It

Dhuli Chhish group

Dhuli Chhish6518
1983-09-18
Dhuli Chhish, ,
First ascent
C. Platter, S. Riz & L. Vaia via West Face and South Ridge
Shahan Dok (Shah Dok, D1)36.436666666666772.86083333333336320
1988-07-22
Shahan Dok, ,
First ascent
Party from Jp

Eastern Hindu Raj

Eastern Hindu Raj is tightly squeezed in between Hindu Kush in the north and Batura Muztagh of Karakoram in the east. The main peaks of the area are Chiantar Sar (6416m) and Garmush Zom (5243m).

Garmush Zom (Darmush Zom)36.710277777777873.58611111111116243
A little known peak in the central Hindu Raj south of the Chiantar glacier
1975-01-01
Garmush Zom, West ridge,
First ascent
West ridge: Austrian party
1975-08-01
Garmush Zom, ,
First ascent
Peter Baumgartner, Karl Mahrer, Franz Osterreicher via west ridge
West ridge
West ridge. 1975-01-01First ascentAustrian party, 1975.
Chiantar Sar (Koh-i-Chiantar)36.726666666666773.89083333333336416
1967-08-15
Chiantar Sar, ,
First ascent
Party from Ger