Thalay Sagar from Kedar valley. North face facing directly at the camera. NE ridge is the ridge on the left (not skyline) and West ridge forms the right skyline. Credit: Kailas98,  Shot on 2015-06-27 Photo taken in Gangotri, Uttarakhand, India.(c) Kailas98, licensed under: CC BY-SA 3.0.
Thalay Sagar from Kedar valley. North face facing directly at the camera. NE ridge is the ridge on the left (not skyline) and West ridge forms the right skyline. Credit: Kailas98, Shot on 2015-06-27 Photo taken in Gangotri, Uttarakhand, India.(c) Kailas98, licensed under: CC BY-SA 3.0.

Asia

Area overview

Asia is huge continent with great number of mountain ranges, varying a great deal in regards to location, character, altitude and mountaineering history. The area is very heterogenous in pretty much every possible way as language, culture, accessibility, weather patters etc. vary wildly between the areas. Basically, nothing in "in general" as far as climbing on the Asian ranges is concerned.

For the sake of overview, I have divided the ranges into three areas a a way that is fairly consistent with the division used by Alpine Journal:

  • West Asia The highest and best known range of the area is Caucasus which has several of Europe's highest peaks culminating at Elbrus. Elbrus is mainly attractive to those wanting to stand on top of the Europe, whereas many lower but far steeper peaks are of a lot more interest to alpinists. When talking about climbing and Turkey, most Europeans probably think about sport climbing. However, ranges in Turkey have peaks of comparable height to the Alps with Ararat exceeding anything in the Alps in height, yet not much is known about mountain climbing potential in Turkey.
  • Central Asia Cental Asia is a great and complex collection of several high ranges, many of which collide at Pamir knot. Himalaya and nearby Karakoram are home to all of the 8000m peaks and most other of the highest peaks. However, several other mountain ranges have some very high peaks reaching well above 7000m mark. Of these ranges, most climbing activity has been concentrated on Himalays, Karakoram, Tien Shan and Pamir. However, Pamir and Tien Shan have been largely a domain of climbers coming from former Soviet Union and are far less known elsewhere. Kunlun is not particularly well known with a single exception: Muztagh Ata counts as one of the easiest 7000m peaks and is fairly popular ascent. Hindu Kush, Hindu Raj and Altai are least known of Central Asia main ranges. Some parts of Central Asia have all sorts of red tape due to border disputes and political unrest.
  • Tibetan Plateau Tibetan plateau is the vastest and the highest plateau of the world. It is surrounded by great number of high mountain ranges. Many ranges extend somewhat to southern Tibet forming the south border of it. In these cases the Tibetan parts of the range are generally covered together with areas not located in Tibet.
  • East Asia Highest peaks of Eastern Asia are to be found in one of the many Chinese ranges. They have been very unknown, but during the recent years several high profile ascent, including few Piolet d'Or winners and nominees, have taken place in China. They are also probable place to be featured in climbing media in years to come, as there are lot of ranges with high and spectacular looking ranges of which very little is known and virtually all peaks have not been climbed. Peaks closer to pacific ocean such as Japanese Alps and peaks in Kamchatka peninsula are largely volcanic.

Climbing in Asia

Himalayas and nearby Karakoram are home to all of the 8000m peaks and most other of the highest peaks. However, several other mountain ranges, particularly several ranges meeting at the Pamir Knot and many ranges located in China have some very high peaks reaching well above 7000m mark. Of these ranges, most climbing activity has been concentrated on Himalays, Karakoram, Tien Shan and Pamir. However, Pamir and Tien Shan have been largely a domain of climbers coming from former Soviet Union and far less known elsewhere. The same holds largely true for Caucasus ; except for Elbrus, not a great deal is widely known about the climbing potential outside of Russia and neighboring countries. Recently several high profile ascent, including few Piolet d'Or winners and nominees, have taken place in the Chinese ranges. They are also probable place to be featured in climbing media in years to come, as there are lot of ranges with high and spectacular looking ranges of which very little is known and virtually all peaks have not been climbed. Several of the lower ranges still have some spectacular peaks.

Many areas come with all sorts of red tape attached:

  • Several of the Asian mountain ranges are located in politically highly sensitive areas due to border disputes or the political situation is otherwise such, that the ranges are practically impossibly to get to (some areas on India-Pakistan, Chechenia, Afghanistan to name a few).
  • Some areas are highly unsafe due to risk of terror attacks, kidnapping or robbery.
  • Some areas are just so remote, that even getting to the mountains can provide to be obstacle.
  • Some areas or peaks are banned for climbers due to conservation or religious reasons. Nanda Devi Sanctuary is example of the former, entire Bhutan of the latter.
  • Access to areas might be limited in numbers and only available is specific rules are fulfilled. Usually this means joint expedition or hire of local army liason officer etc.
  • In many areas a climbing permit is required. Depending on area this can mean relatively moderate fee whereas on some of the highest peaks the fee can be extremely high. Climbing permits can also put several other limitations on parties, for example require hiring local guides etc.

Getting to the some of the mountain areas can also be anything from straight-forward:

In terms of availability of climbing guidebooks etc. areas vary a great deal. However, in general there are surprisingly few guidebooks, even about the most visited and highest ranges. On the other hand, loads of information bout climbed routes on the highest peaks can be found on Alpine Journals, The Himalayan Index and climbing media. This, however usually covers only the highest peaks and/or very difficult climbs. Trekking guidebooks might be invaluable sources in terms of approach etc. In contrast to some well explored areas such as Nepal Himalaya, some areas are about as little explored as any place on earth, the closest thing to blank on a map there currently is.

What information can be dug out can also be highly confusing. To start with, the lack of common language means that the same peak can be referred to with multiple names altogether. There might also be several varying spellings for the same name. Add to this that there may be several very different peaks with the same name and the fact that altitude figures are inconsistent between sources, sometimes by a lot.

If information can be found, the next obstacle is trying to make sense of it. As can probably be expected, there are loads of different grading schemes:

  • Turkey : System using roman numerals is used. I have no information whether the system is specific to Turkey or if it is more or less the same than ifas, just using Roman numerals, or nccs. For sports climbing and other modern rock routes french rock grade is most commonly applied.
  • Former Soviet areas : Russian alpine grade is generally applied. Modern routes may use different systems, such as WI grade or french depending on the nature of route. Furthermore, several of the big walls have been graded according to nccs scale.
  • Karakoram and Himalayas : Most common system is ifas. However, routes climbed by visiting climbers usually use either ifas or nccs system depending on which system they are most accustomed to. Trraditionally routes on 8000m peaks and some other very high peaks have not been graded.
  • China : No idea what grading system, if any, is used to grade mountain routes. However, routes climbed by visiting climbers usually use either ifas or nccs system depending on which system they are most accustomed to.
  • Japan : No idea what grading system, if any, is used to grade mountain routes. For moder rock routes, yds system is most common.

Areas

West Asia

Yeghvard town and Mount Ararat. Source: . Credit: Armtoursites,  Shot on 2011-06-01 Photo taken in 
								Yeghvard
								Kotayk Province
								Armenia
							, Yeghvard, Kotayk Province, Armenia. Licensed under: Public Domain.
Yeghvard town and Mount Ararat. Source: . Credit: Armtoursites, Shot on 2011-06-01 Photo taken in Yeghvard Kotayk Province Armenia , Yeghvard, Kotayk Province, Armenia. Licensed under: Public Domain.

The highest and best known range of the area is Caucasus which has several of Europe's highest peaks culminating at Elbrus. Elbrus is mainly attractive to those wanting to stand on top of the Europe, whereas many lower but far steeper peaks are of a lot more interest to alpinists. When talking about climbing and Turkey, most Europeans probably think about sport climbing. However, ranges in Turkey have peaks of comparable height to the Alps with Ararat exceeding anything in the Alps in height, yet not much is known about mountain climbing potential in Turkey.

  • Turkey Turkey is a mostly mountainous country, with mountains bordering to the Mediterranean in the south, the Black Sea in the north, Aegean Sea in the west and a high, dry plateau in the interior part of the country. There is much variety among the mountains of Turkey.
  • About Caucasus Caucasus range, extending 1200km between Black Sea in the west and Caspian Sea in the east, forms both geographic, ethnic and political barrier between Europe and Asia. North to south the range extends maximally 180km. Although it is the home to the highest mountains of the Europe, the area is relatively little known among western climbers, as the access was formerly difficult. There are seven peaks above 5000m. The Great Caucasus is traditionally divided into three regions - Western, Central and Eastern, with conventional borders coming through two highest peaks: Mt. Elbrus (5642m) to the west and Mt. Kazbek (5033m) to the east.
  • Alborz Alborz is a mountain range in northern Iran that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan.
  • Arabian peninsula Most of the mountains in the peninsula are located in the western coast of Red Sea in Hejaz and Asir ranges. The highest peaks of the peninsula are found in Yemen, culminating at Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb (3666m). However, soem of the lower rock formations, such as Wadi Rum of Jordania, are likely the best known climbing objectives of the peninsula.

Turkey

Turkey is a mostly mountainous country, with mountains bordering to the Mediterranean in the south, the Black Sea in the north, Aegean Sea in the west and a high, dry plateau in the interior part of the country. There is much variety among the mountains of Turkey.

  • Taurus mountains. In the southern part of the country on the cost of Mediterranean Sea lie Taurus mountains. They presents a formidable crest-line of steep rocky peaks, dozens of which top 3000 meters.
  • Pontic Mountains. In northern part of Turkey, close to Caspain Sea rise Pontic Mountains, which is actually a collection of several smaller ranges. Summits in the Pontics average from 3000m to 3600m.
  • Ida Mountains in northwestern Turkey on the coast of Aegean Sea, are volcanic in origin, and there are many hot springs in the foothills. This mountain area is the site of ancient Troy, and of the legendary events which led to the Trojan War.
  • Armenian Highlands. The two highest mountains in Turkey, Mount Ararat (5165m) and Suphan Dagi (4434m) are isolated volcanoes in the extreme east of the country.

Turkey's climate varies a lot between different areas, as the damp coastal regions contrast with the dry inland plateau. Generally warm, comfortable temperatures prevail throughout Turkey, making for excellent year round hiking, though early Summer is the best season for the higher summits.

  • Smith, Karl: The Mountains of Turkey. Isbn: 9781852841614. Cicerone Pr Ltd, 2001.

Taurus

In the southern part of the country on the cost of Mediterranean Sea lie Taurus mountains. They presents a formidable crest-line of steep rocky peaks, dozens of which top 3000 meters.

Western Taurus

The mountain group of greatest interest to climbers in Western Taurus is Aladaglar where Mt. Demirkazik (3756m) us the highest and probably also the most famous climbing destination. The area is also quite popular rock climbing area.

  • Tuzel, O. B.: The Ala Dag, Climbs and Treks in Turkeys Crimson Mountai. Isbn: 9781852841126. Cicerone Pr Ltd, 2001.
  • Kasyikci, Ozturk: A Rock Climbing Guide to Antalya. Isbn: 9786058576919.
  • Ince, Recep: Comprensive Guide to Aladaglar - Climbing, Ski Touring, Trekking Route - Englisch. Isbn: 9786056503504.

Pontic mountains

In northern part of Turkey, close to Caspain Sea rise Pontic Mountains, which is actually a collection of several smaller ranges. Summits in the Pontics average from 3000m to 3600m. The main climbing area of Pontic Mountains is Kaçkar Mountains (Kaçkar Dağları or simply Kaçkars) culminating at Kaçkar Dağı (3937m). The Kaçkars are glaciated mountains that are alpine in character, with steep rocky peaks and numerous mountain lakes.

  • Clow, Kate & Gardner, Chris: The Kackar - Trekking in Turkey's Black Sea Mountains, 2nd Revised Edition Edition edition. Isbn: 9780957154704. Upcountry (Turkey) Ltd, 2012.

Armenian Highlands

The two highest mountains in Turkey, Mount Ararat (5165m) and Suphan Dagi (4434m) are isolated volcanoes in the extreme east of the country. Snow-capped Mount Ararat (5165m) rises in isolation above the surrounding plains and valleys in extreme northeast Turkey, 15km west of Iran, and 35km south of Armenia. The second highest mountain Suphan Dagi (4434m) is located just north of Lake Van, Turkey's largest lake.

  • Lennon, Peter & Collomb, Robin G.: Mount Ararat Region - Eastern Turkey. Isbn: 9780906227367. EWP, 2006.

Caucasus

Credit: T.Dept,  Shot on 2015-06-27 Photo taken in Georgia.Licensed under: Public Domain.
Credit: T.Dept, Shot on 2015-06-27 Photo taken in Georgia.Licensed under: Public Domain.

Caucasus range, extending 1200km between Black Sea in the west and Caspian Sea in the east, forms both geographic, ethnic and political barrier between Europe and Asia. North to south the range extends maximally 180km. Although it is the home to the highest mountains of the Europe, the area is relatively little known among western climbers, as the access was formerly difficult. There are seven peaks above 5000m. The Great Caucasus is traditionally divided into three regions - Western, Central and Eastern, with conventional borders coming through two highest peaks: Mt. Elbrus (5642m) to the west and Mt. Kazbek (5033m) to the east. <<more>>.

Alborz

Alborz is a mountain range in northern Iran that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan.

Central Asia

Credit: Ben Tubby,  Shot on 2012-03-14 Photo taken in Trango Group, Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.(c) Ben Tubby, licensed under: CC BY 2.0.
Credit: Ben Tubby, Shot on 2012-03-14 Photo taken in Trango Group, Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.(c) Ben Tubby, licensed under: CC BY 2.0.

Cental Asia is a great and complex collection of several high ranges, many of which collide at Pamir knot. Himalaya and nearby Karakoram are home to all of the 8000m peaks and most other of the highest peaks. However, several other mountain ranges have some very high peaks reaching well above 7000m mark. Of these ranges, most climbing activity has been concentrated on Himalays, Karakoram, Tien Shan and Pamir. However, Pamir and Tien Shan have been largely a domain of climbers coming from former Soviet Union and are far less known elsewhere. Kunlun is not particularly well known with a single exception: Muztagh Ata counts as one of the easiest 7000m peaks and is fairly popular ascent. Hindu Kush, Hindu Raj and Altai are least known of Central Asia main ranges. Some parts of Central Asia have all sorts of red tape due to border disputes and political unrest.

  • Tien Shan Tien Shan mountain range, meaning Heavenly Mountains, is 800 km wide and 2800 km long mountain system located in Central Asia northeast of Pamir and north of Kunlun Shan, extending from Uzbekistan to Mongolia. It is extended further north by the Bogda Mountains, and further still by the Altai Mountains along China's northern border. The highest peak is Pik Pobeda (Jengish Chokusu, 7439m). There are more than thirty peaks close to, or over, 6000 meters above sea level, the predominant height of summits in the Tien Shan is 4000-5000m and passes range between heights of 3500-4500m.
  • General
  • Altai Altai mountains are located in the region where Russia, Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia meet, north of Bogda range. Though Altai range is lower in altitude than many other ranges in Asia, it is very remote, and much time and planning are required for its approach. The highest mountain is Gora Belukha (or Belukla, 4506m).
  • Tibetan Plateau Tibetan plateau is the vastest and the highest plateau of the world. It is surrounded by great number of high mountain ranges. Many ranges extend somewhat to southern Tibet forming the south border of it. In these cases the Tibetan parts of the range are generally covered together with areas not located in Tibet. In the center of these rises lie several little known ranges known collectively as Central Tibetan Plateau.
  • Hindu Kush Hindu Kush is located southwest of Pamir, more or less on the border of Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Hindu Kush is one of the great watersheds of Central Asia, forming part of the vast Alpine zone that stretches across the continent from east to west. In the eastern part of the range, mountains are generally round and wide, and rise to around 5500m, low by central Asian standards. Western part has a cluster of high snowy peaks, twenty of which are 7000 meter summits. The highest mountain of the area is Tirich Mir (7690m). Compared to many other areas with high peaks, the weather is predictable and stable.
  • Hindu Raj The Hindu Raj is the extensive chain of sub-7000-meter summits that roughly parallels the Hindu Kush and lies between it and the Western Karakoram. On its north side lies nowadays very rarely visited eastern Hindu Kush, while to the south upper reaches of the Yarkun and the Indus rivers flow into the areas known as Swat and Kohistan. The range is much less well-known than its neighbors, partly because of the absence of any really high peaks.
  • About Karakoram Karakoram (sometimes spelled Karakorum) lies in northeast Pakistan and Northern India, some 1500km west of Nepalase Himalayas and north of westernmost part of Himalaya, separated from it by the river of Indus. It is often regarded as a part of the Himalayas. The mountains in Karakoram typically have sharp, angular form and many of icy peaks are surrounded by wild towers and spires.
  • About Himalaya Most of the worlds highest mountains are located in the vast and complex Himalayan range (that means The Land of Snow). It forms over 2000km broad crescent through Northeastern Pakistan (Punjab), Northwestern India, Southern Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim Bhutan and Assam area of India. It is bordered on the north by the plateau of Central Asia and on the south by the fertile plains of the India. Ten of the world's fourteen 8000-meter peaks are located in Himalaya (the remaining are located in Karakoram).

Tien Shan

South side of Khan Tengri. The prominent ridge in the center is Marble Rib. Credit: Chen Zhao,  Shot on 2012-03-14 Photo taken in Kyrgyzstan.(c) Chen Zhao, licensed under: CC BY 2.0.
South side of Khan Tengri. The prominent ridge in the center is Marble Rib. Credit: Chen Zhao, Shot on 2012-03-14 Photo taken in Kyrgyzstan.(c) Chen Zhao, licensed under: CC BY 2.0.

Tien Shan mountain range, meaning Heavenly Mountains, is 800 km wide and 2800 km long mountain system located in Central Asia northeast of Pamir and north of Kunlun Shan, extending from Uzbekistan to Mongolia. It is extended further north by the Bogda Mountains, and further still by the Altai Mountains along China's northern border. The highest peak is Pik Pobeda (Jengish Chokusu, 7439m). There are more than thirty peaks close to, or over, 6000 meters above sea level, the predominant height of summits in the Tien Shan is 4000-5000m and passes range between heights of 3500-4500m. <<more>>.

Pamir

The Pamir Highway in Tajikistan near the Karakul lake. Credit: Hylgeriak,  Shot on 2015-06-27 Photo taken in Tajikistan.(c) Hylgeriak, licensed under: CC BY-SA 3.0.
The Pamir Highway in Tajikistan near the Karakul lake. Credit: Hylgeriak, Shot on 2015-06-27 Photo taken in Tajikistan.(c) Hylgeriak, licensed under: CC BY-SA 3.0.

Pamir range, called the roof of the world by Persians, is located in southern Central Asia. It is mainly located mainly in Tajikistan, but the northern slopes stretch to Kyrgyzstan, its western and southern slopes stretch to Afganistan and eastern slopes to China. Some count Kongur Shan to the East of Pamir to be part as Pamir instead of it belonging to Kunlun Shan. If Kongur is considered part of Pamir, it would be the highest mountain of the range. If not, then The three highest mountains in the Pamirs core are Ismoil Somoni Peak (known from 1932–1962 as Stalin Peak, and from 1962–1998 as Communism Peak) at 7495m, Pik Lenin 7134m and Peak Korzhenevskaya (7105m) the the three highest peaks of the range. <<more>>.

Altai

Altai mountains are located in the region where Russia, Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia meet, north of Bogda range. Though Altai range is lower in altitude than many other ranges in Asia, it is very remote, and much time and planning are required for its approach. The highest mountain is Gora Belukha (or Belukla, 4506m).

Altai mountains can be divided into three sections:

  • Russian Altai (aka Great Altai). Main grouop of Rissian ALtai is Katun range with Gora Belukha (4506m), the highest peak of Altai and entire Siberia.
  • Mongolian Altai (aka Ektag Altai). Located on the border between China and Mongolia, SE of Russian Altai. Despite Altai's highest peak Belukha being part of Russian Altai, Mongolian Altai is generally higher with several next highest peaks being located there.
  • Gobi-Altai. Located entirely in Mongolia, north of Gobi desert and east of Mongolian Altai. The highest peak of the range is Ich Bogd Uul (3957m).
  • Forbidden Mountains pp.99-101

Russian Altai

Russian Altai (aka Great Altai). Main grouop of Rissian Altai is Katun range with Gora Belukha (4506m), the highest peak of Altai and entire Siberia. The best known part of Russian Altai is cirque formed by Delone (4070m) - Belukha East - Belukha West and Altai Crow (4167m) around the Akkem glacier.

Mongolian Altai

Mongolian Altai (aka Ektag Altai). Located on the border between China and Mongolia, SE of Russian Altai. Despite Altai's highest peak Belukha being part of Russian Altai, Mongolian ALtai is generally higher with several next highest peaks being located there.

Tavan Bogd group is a dense cluster of alpine peaks that contain a compact but complex system of glaciers. Huiten is located only 3km south of the ice-dome summit of Naraimdal Uul (Friendship Peak, 4184m), the geopolitical triple point where Mongolia, Russia, and China converge. Mount Huithen, the highest peak of the range, is the second highest peak of entire ALtai range.

Gobi-Altai

Located entirely in Mongolia, north of Gobi desert and east of Mongolian Altai. The highest peak of the range is Ich Bogd Uul (3957m).

Hindu Kush

Hindu Kush is located southwest of Pamir, more or less on the border of Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Hindu Kush is one of the great watersheds of Central Asia, forming part of the vast Alpine zone that stretches across the continent from east to west. In the eastern part of the range, mountains are generally round and wide, and rise to around 5500m, low by central Asian standards. Western part has a cluster of high snowy peaks, twenty of which are 7000 meter summits. The highest mountain of the area is Tirich Mir (7690m). Compared to many other areas with high peaks, the weather is predictable and stable. <<more>>.

Hindu Raj

The Hindu Raj is the extensive chain of sub-7000-meter summits that roughly parallels the Hindu Kush and lies between it and the Western Karakoram. On its north side lies nowadays very rarely visited eastern Hindu Kush, while to the south upper reaches of the Yarkun and the Indus rivers flow into the areas known as Swat and Kohistan. The range is much less well-known than its neighbors, partly because of the absence of any really high peaks. For a long time the more easily visible Buni Zom (6551m) at the western end of the range was considered the highest summit. During the 1960s that the shapely Koyo Zom, hidden in the center of the range, was found to be the highest at 6889m. Other notable peaks include Thui Zom 1 (6661m) and 2 (6623 m), Dhuli Chhish (6518m), Garmush (6243m) and Karka 6222m). <<more>>.

Karakoram

Big peak on the left is Gaherbrum IV with its NW ridge forming the left skyline. The face directly towards the camera is West Face, aka Shining Wall. Credit: Florian Ederer,  Shot on 2014-06-19 Photo taken in Skardu, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan.(c) Florian Ederer, licensed under: CC BY-SA 3.0.
Big peak on the left is Gaherbrum IV with its NW ridge forming the left skyline. The face directly towards the camera is West Face, aka Shining Wall. Credit: Florian Ederer, Shot on 2014-06-19 Photo taken in Skardu, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan.(c) Florian Ederer, licensed under: CC BY-SA 3.0.

Karakoram (sometimes spelled Karakorum) lies in northeast Pakistan and Northern India, some 1500km west of Nepalase Himalayas and north of westernmost part of Himalaya , separated from it by the river of Indus. It is often regarded as a part of the Himalayas. The mountains in Karakoram typically have sharp, angular form and many of icy peaks are surrounded by wild towers and spires. <<more>>.

Himalaya

Kyangjin Gompa in the upper Langtang valley. Credit: Ari Paulin,  Shot on 2009-06-21 Photo taken in Langtang valley, Rasuwa, Nepal.(c) Ari Paulin, licensed under: Copyrighted.
Kyangjin Gompa in the upper Langtang valley. Credit: Ari Paulin, Shot on 2009-06-21 Photo taken in Langtang valley, Rasuwa, Nepal.(c) Ari Paulin, licensed under: Copyrighted.

Most of the worlds highest mountains are located in the vast and complex Himalayan range (that means The Land of Snow). It forms over 2000km broad crescent through Northeastern Pakistan (Punjab), Northwestern India, Southern Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim Bhutan and Assam area of India. It is bordered on the north by the plateau of Central Asia and on the south by the fertile plains of the India. Ten of the world's fourteen 8000-meter peaks are located in Himalaya (the remaining are located in Karakoram). <<more>>.

Tibetan Plateau

Mountain chain in Kailash area of Tibet. Source: . Credit: Frank Hackeschmidt,  Shot on 2006-07-14 Photo taken in 
								Tibet
								China
							, Tibet, China. Licensed under: Public Domain.
Mountain chain in Kailash area of Tibet. Source: . Credit: Frank Hackeschmidt, Shot on 2006-07-14 Photo taken in Tibet China , Tibet, China. Licensed under: Public Domain.

Tibetan plateau is the vastest and the highest plateau of the world. It is surrounded by great number of high mountain ranges. Many ranges extend somewhat to southern Tibet forming the south border of it. In these cases the Tibetan parts of the range are generally covered together with areas not located in Tibet. <<more>>.

East Asia

Mount Siguniang. The Fourth Girl of Mount Siguniang is the highest peak, with the Third Girl to its right, Sichuan. Credit: Ben Kaethner,  Shot on 2014-07-31 Photo taken in Mount Siguniang National Park, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.Licensed under: CC BY-SA 3.0.
Mount Siguniang. The Fourth Girl of Mount Siguniang is the highest peak, with the Third Girl to its right, Sichuan. Credit: Ben Kaethner, Shot on 2014-07-31 Photo taken in Mount Siguniang National Park, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.Licensed under: CC BY-SA 3.0.

Highest peaks of Eastern Asia are to be found in one of the many Chinese ranges. They have been very unknown, but during the recent years several high profile ascent, including few Piolet d'Or winners and nominees, have taken place in China. They are also probable place to be featured in climbing media in years to come, as there are lot of ranges with high and spectacular looking ranges of which very little is known and virtually all peaks have not been climbed. Peaks closer to pacific ocean such as Japanese Alps and peaks in Kamchatka peninsula are largely volcanic.

  • Kamchatka Kamchatka peninsula of Russia has several high volcanoes, many of them active. The highest of them is Klyuchevskaya Sopka (4750m), the tallest active volcano in the Northern Hemisphere. Many of Kamchatka volcanoes have classic cone shape; most striking example being Kronotsky (3527m). Most accessible are the three volcanoes visible from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: Koryaksky (3456m), Avachinsky (2741m) and Kozelsky.
  • Japan Japan is rugged and mountainous, about 70% of the land consisting of mountains. A long chain of mountains runs down the middle of the Japanese islands, dividing it into two halves, the "face," fronting on the Pacific Ocean, and the "back," toward the Sea of Japan. On the Pacific side are steep mountains 1500 to 3000 meters high, with deep valleys and gorges. Central Japan is marked by the convergence of the three mountain chains — the Hida, Kiso, and Akaishi mountains — that form the Japanese Alps (Nihon Arupusu). Japan Alps have several peaks exceeding 3000m, the he highest point being Mount Kita (3193m). The highest point in the country is dormant volcano of Mount Fuji (Fujisan, 3776m). On the Sea of Japan side are plateaus and low mountain districts, with altitudes of 500 to 1500.
  • Hengduan Mountains The Hengduan Mountains is a large mountainous region in southwestern China. It occupies most of the western part of the present-day Sichuan province, as well as the northwestern corner of Yunnan province and the easternmost section of Tibet Autonomous Region. This approximates the historical region known as Kham. It forms the south-eastern border of the Tibet Plateau. Mountain ranges in the southern end of the Hengduan system form the border between Burma and China.
  • SE Asia The highest peaks are located in the northern part of Myanmar (Burma) where the highest peaks rise to almost 6000m. Sometimes these ranges are considered to be part of Himalaya, sometimes a separate system. Ar any rate, despite the high altitude, very little is known about the peaks. Further south there are also several mountain ranges, but the peaks significantly lower.

Kamchatka

Kamchatka peninsula of Russia has several high volcanoes, many of them active. The highest of them is Klyuchevskaya Sopka (4750m), the tallest active volcano in the Northern Hemisphere. Many of Kamchatka volcanoes have classic cone shape; most striking example being Kronotsky (3527m). Most accessible are the three volcanoes visible from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: Koryaksky (3456m), Avachinsky (2741m) and Kozelsky.

Kliuchevskaya (Klyuchevskaya Sopka)56.03164160.490694750
The highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and the highest active volcano of Eastern Asia or entire Eurasia (depending whether Damavand is considered active or not). The shape of the peak is classic volcano, a steep symmetrical cone, that can be climbed from all sides. Mostly, climbs are from the pass between Klyuchevskaja and Kamen from the south.
1788-01-01
Kliuchevskaya, ,
First ascent
Daniel Gauss & companions
  • World Mountaineering pp.208-211
South side
via ice plateau and Kamen-Kliuchevskaya col. Rus 2A/PD; I/II; 3800m, 8-9h.

Japan

Japan is rugged and mountainous, about 70% of the land consisting of mountains. A long chain of mountains runs down the middle of the Japanese islands, dividing it into two halves, the "face," fronting on the Pacific Ocean, and the "back," toward the Sea of Japan. On the Pacific side are steep mountains 1500 to 3000 meters high, with deep valleys and gorges. Central Japan is marked by the convergence of the three mountain chains — the Hida, Kiso, and Akaishi mountains — that form the Japanese Alps (Nihon Arupusu). Japan Alps have several peaks exceeding 3000m, the he highest point being Mount Kita (3193m). The highest point in the country is dormant volcano of Mount Fuji (Fujisan, 3776m). On the Sea of Japan side are plateaus and low mountain districts, with altitudes of 500 to 1500.

The best season for climbing in Japanese Alps late April-mid-November.

Japanese Alps

The Japanese Alps (Nihon Arupusu) is a series of mountain ranges in Japan which bisect the main island of Honshu. Japan Alps have several peaks exceeding 3000m, the he highest point being Mount Kita (3193m).

Hida Mountains

The Northern Alps, also known as the Hida Mountains, stretch through Nagano, Toyama and Gifu prefectures. A small portion of the mountains also reach into Niigata Prefecture.

Kiso Mountains

The Central Alps, also known as the Kiso Mountains, lie in Nagano prefecture.

Akaishi Mountains

The Southern Alps, also known as the Akaishi Mountains, span Nagano, Yamanashi, and Shizuoka prefectures.

Hida mountains
Yari-ga take3179
  • World Mountaineering pp.266-269
Mount Hotaka (Mount Hotakadak)36.289167137.6480563190
1906-01-01
Mount Hotaka, ,
First ascent
Gunji Abe
Kiso mountains
Mount Kisokoma35.789167137.8033332956
Komagatake Ropeway. hiking.
Normal route. The Komagatake Ropeway will take hikers from the base of the mountain up the Senjōjiki Col (2650m), leaving just the last few hundreds meters of the mountain to be scaled.

Volcanoes

Mount Fuji35.358138.7313776
The highest and most famous mountain in Japan. Several hiking routes with little technical difficulty.
North side
Kawaguchiko. Rus 1B; 2nd class; 1500m.

Chinese ranges

Highest peaks of Eastern Asia are to be found in one of the many Chinese ranges . They have been very unknown, but during the recent years several high profile ascent, including few Piolet d'Or winners and nominees, have taken place in China. They are also probable place to be featured in climbing media in years to come, as there are lot of ranges with high and spectacular looking ranges of which very little is known and virtually all peaks have not been climbed. <<more>>.

SE Asia

The highest peaks are located in the northern part of Myanmar (Burma) where the highest peaks rise to almost 6000m. Sometimes these ranges are considered to be part of Himalaya, sometimes a separate system. Ar any rate, despite the high altitude, very little is known about the peaks. Further south there are also several mountain ranges, but the peaks significantly lower.

  • Dandalika Range The highest peaks are located in the northern part of Myanmar (Burma) where the highest peaks rise to almost 6000m. Sometimes these ranges are considered to be part of Himalaya, sometimes a separate system. Ar any rate, despite the high altitude, very little is known about the peaks.
  • Patkai range
  • Shan Hills
  • Kachin Hills

Dandalika Range

The highest peaks are located in the northern part of Myanmar (Burma) where the highest peaks rise to almost 6000m. Sometimes these ranges are considered to be part of Himalaya, sometimes a separate system. Ar any rate, despite the high altitude, very little is known about the peaks.

  • http://aac-publications.s3.amazonaws.com/aaj-12199829601-1446477036.pdf Veiled Mountains in North Myanmar Japanese Alpine News 2015

Mountains

West Asia

Turkey

Taurus

Aladağlar
Mt. Demirkazik (Mt. Büyük Demirkazik)37.47388935.1486113756
North face
The north wall of Büyük Demirkazik is a smaller version of the Eiger Nord wall in the Alps, a vertical limestone face of 650m, with very few climbing records.
East ridge
East ridge (South Gully/East Ridge). II-III/PD+; 40°; 1600m, 8-10h. 1927-07-17First ascentGeorg Künne, Wilhelm Martin, Marianne Martin & Veli Cavus, 1927-07-17.
Mount Erciyes38.53222235.4505563917
1837-01-01
Mount Erciyes, ,
First ascent
William John Hamilton
East side
East ridge. III F; 100m.

Armenian Highlands

Mount Ararat39.70188344.2983175165
Snow-capped Mount Ararat (5165m) rises in isolation above the surrounding plains and valleys in extreme northeast Turkey, 15km west of Iran, and 35km south of Armenia. Ararat is a holy mountain. Its sacredness comes from the Old Testament legend of Noah, whose ark came to rest on Ararat following the great flood.
1829-10-09
Mount Ararat, ,
First ascent
Dr. Friedrich Parrot & Khachatur Abovian via NW slope
North side
Most technical aspect of Ararat. Special climbing permit is required.
East side
This scenic route used to be very popular as well, however currently discarded by the authorities.
South side
Southern route. PD+; M2; 850/2835m.
Normal route. The most accessible route, ascent here needs no technical climbing skills only good stamina.
NW side
Currently discarded by the authorities.

Alborz

Damavand35.95555652.115671
1900-01-01
Damavand, ,
First ascent
Abu Dolaf Kazraji
Normal route. Hiking.

Central Asia

Altai

Russian Altai

Katun mountaints
Gora Belukha (Gora Belukla, Belukha)49.807586.594506
  • East summit (4506m49.807586.59)
  • West summit (4460m)
Gora Belukha, located in the Katun Mountains, is the highest mountain of Altai range. It is located along the border of Russia and Kazakhstan, just north of the point where these two borders meet those of China and Mongolia.
1914-01-01
Gora Belukha, Delone Pass,
First ascent
Delone Pass: Tronov brothers
1914-01-01
Gora Belukha, Delone Pass,
First ascent
Delone Pass: Tronov brothers
  • Maier pp.249-250
South side
Delone Pass. Rus 2B-3A/PD; 45-60°, I-II; 1300m. 1914-01-01First ascentTronov brothers, 1914.
Normal route. From TKT Pass there via Belukhinski pass to summit.
North side
Belukha (Bottle's Throat, Butylka). Rus 5A/AD+; 65°; 1000m.
Central snow/ice couloir in the middle of Belukha East's North Face.
Akkem Wall. Rus 5A-5B; 1000m.

Mongol-Altai Mountains

Tavan Bogd group
Mount Huithen (Khüiten Peak, Chüiten)49.14583387.8188894374
  • North summit (4370m)
  • Main summit (4374m49.14583387.818889)
1956-01-01
Mount Huithen, NE ridge no north summit,
First ascent
NE ridge no north summit: Pieskariow and party
1988-03-03
Mount Huithen, SE ridge,
First winter ascent
SE ridge: Konstantin Beketov and party
NE ridge
NE ridge no north summit. PD; 10h. 1956-01-01First ascentPieskariow and party, 1956.
Normal route. Possible to continue to main top without major difficulties.
SE ridge
SE ridge. AD; 40°.
Mönkh Khairkhan Uul46.8991.4733334204

East Asia

Kamchatka

Kliuchevskaya (Klyuchevskaya Sopka)56.03164160.490694750
The highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and the highest active volcano of Eastern Asia or entire Eurasia (depending whether Damavand is considered active or not). The shape of the peak is classic volcano, a steep symmetrical cone, that can be climbed from all sides. Mostly, climbs are from the pass between Klyuchevskaja and Kamen from the south.
1788-01-01
Kliuchevskaya, ,
First ascent
Daniel Gauss & companions
  • World Mountaineering pp.208-211
South side
via ice plateau and Kamen-Kliuchevskaya col. Rus 2A/PD; I/II; 3800m, 8-9h.

Japanese Alps

Hida mountains

Yari-ga take3179
  • World Mountaineering pp.266-269
Mount Hotaka (Mount Hotakadak)36.289167137.6480563190
1906-01-01
Mount Hotaka, ,
First ascent
Gunji Abe

Kiso mountains

Mount Kisokoma35.789167137.8033332956
Komagatake Ropeway. hiking.
Normal route. The Komagatake Ropeway will take hikers from the base of the mountain up the Senjōjiki Col (2650m), leaving just the last few hundreds meters of the mountain to be scaled.

Honshu Island

Mount Fuji35.358138.7313776
The highest and most famous mountain in Japan. Several hiking routes with little technical difficulty.
North side
Kawaguchiko. Rus 1B; 2nd class; 1500m.